The hottest supply chain management theory, early

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Supply chain management theory, early warning management theory and comprehensive risk management theory help procurement risk management

supply chain management theory

the process of enterprises from raw materials and parts procurement, transportation, processing and manufacturing, distribution to final delivery to customers is regarded as a chain, which is called supply chain. The concept of supply chain is developed from the concept of extended production, which extends the production activities of enterprises forward and backward. Supply chain is a connection between customers and suppliers through planning, acquisition, storage, distribution, service and other activities, so that enterprises can meet the needs of internal and external customers. Therefore, supply chain management refers to all kinds of activities and processes that plan, coordinate, operate, control and optimize the whole supply chain system. Its goal is to send the right products required by customers to the right place at the right time, in the right quantity, in the right quality and in the right state, and to minimize the total cost

The idea of supply chain management was put forward in the first half of the 20th century. At that time, it was mainly used in military operations, from the determination of demand to the acquisition of materials, as well as the storage, transportation and warehouse management of materials. The whole system was regarded as a system, unified management, reasonable allocation of required materials, "to quickly meet the needs of the battlefield. Later, it was gradually applied to the commercial field. Supply chain management was put forward and enlightened in the business field in the 1980s. It is an integrated idea, including enterprise internal integration and enterprise external integration. During this period, the cooperation between various enterprises (departments) related to the supply chain is very important. In the 1990s, conflicts of interest sometimes occurred between enterprises (departments) related to the supply chain, which led to the decline of the efficiency of supply chain management and the weakening of the competitiveness of the whole supply chain. In order to overcome the above shortcomings, we must improve the overall competitiveness of the supply chain. In the initial formation stage of supply chain management, information salting and customer dissatisfaction occur when information flow is transmitted upward. The inability of information sharing effectively has become an important obstacle for enterprises to improve their competitiveness. So far, supply chain management is in the stage of emphasizing the establishment of partnership. The coordinated supply chain proposed in the previous period of the partnership, It advocates that all cooperative enterprises should "coordinate with each other" ". partnership emphasizes cooperation with as few suppliers as possible, and the selection of partners is a step-by-step comprehensive evaluation process that takes into account various factors, and ensures the effectiveness of cooperation.

from the perspective of the operation mode of supply chain, supply chain management has two operation modes, one is called cost-effective supply chain, the other is called time responsive supply chain. Any enterprise gains benefits from two aspects Profit is revenue and cost. Revenue is generated by developing the supply chain and responding to customer demand. Cost is mainly obtained by improving the efficiency of the supply chain and reducing costs. So the core of the supply chain is how to develop the supply chain, improve customer responsiveness, and reduce the overall supply chain operating costs. The cost-effective supply chain emphasizes the pursuit of goals and low-cost response to customer needs. Time response is agile, also known as agile supply chain. It needs the support of IT technology to achieve rapid response. All links of production, sales and logistics can obtain the required information at the first time, so as to achieve rapid response

1. Test piece area: 1. Generally, the collaborative operation of supply chain is the core idea of current supply chain management. This requires considering information integration from the perspective of supply chain, how to share information with suppliers and customers, and breaking the traditional concept of closed integration from this perspective, so information technology is linked to supply chain management from the beginning. From the perspective of information technology, supply chain management is actually an expanding scope. From the perspective of organizational structure, MRP (material requirements planning), which initially supported independent departments, then extended to the integration of finance, capital flow and logistics, and built an enterprise interior within the enterprise. With the progress of technology, and then enter the era of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), enterprises from internal resource management began to enter a wider range of network organization resource management, from internal organization, internal resource management to how to establish enterprise cooperation, as well as the whole direction of synchronized supply chain

the typical technology of supply chain collaborative operation is VMI (Vendor Managed Inventory), that is, supplier managed inventory. VMI can greatly reduce costs, reduce the costs of users or downstream enterprises, and free its energy from inventory management to core business management. Therefore, many enterprises, which originally invested a lot in inventory management, can now reduce the cost of inventory investment and improve flexibility. Supply chain management theory provides important theoretical support for the application of OEM enterprise procurement management. As procurement management is an important part of supply chain management, its operation mode should not only conform to the idea of supply chain management, but also take into account the complexity, transmissibility, diversity and dynamics of supply chain risk. In order to reduce the risk of procurement management, we need to adhere to the integrated ideas and management methods according to the requirements of supply chain management, emphasizing the maximization of overall interests, rather than the maximization of economic benefits of a node enterprise. In full consideration of the risk factors involved in procurement management in the links from procurement, production to sales, and in combination with information technology, inventory optimization strategy and cost-benefit principle, constantly strengthen the risk awareness of procurement management and improve the anti risk ability of enterprises

enterprise early warning management theory

enterprise early warning management theory was put forward by Chinese scholars Yu Lian and others in the 1990s after studying a large number of enterprises in business difficulties in China. The idea of its research is to regard enterprise adversity and enterprise prosperity as the inevitable process of enterprise development, to reveal the interaction and transformation law between them, and its research focus is the phenomenon of enterprise mistakes and failures, The object of study is the internal relationship between enterprise adversity and prosperity. The purpose is to establish an early warning management system to avoid mistakes and reverse adversity in enterprise management organizations. Its research mainly focuses on several contradictory relationships, namely "positive work negative work, effective one invalid, promotion one promotion retreat, benefit one drawback, success one failure", etc. The theory of enterprise early warning management believes that the whole management system of an enterprise should have the functions of identifying and preventing errors, correcting and treating errors, that is, the function of management early warning. Therefore, the theory makes a new design for the structure of the enterprise management system, and designs the whole system into three parts, namely, strategic management, executive management and early warning management

The theoretical system of enterprise early warning management includes basic principle system, analysis and diagnosis system and method operation system. The basic principle consists of the deduction and induction of enterprise environment, enterprise objectives, management organization cycle, management behavior, enterprise adversity, management fluctuation, management behavior errors, and management early warning. Among them, except that the three categories of enterprise environment, enterprise objectives and management behavior are basically synonymous with the categories used in the original management theory, the other five are the unique research categories of enterprise early warning management theory. The analysis and diagnosis system constructs five analysis models:

first, the management error analysis model, which prompts the behavior mode and main activity fields of management errors, the error causing environment and its controllable degree

the second is the management fluctuation analysis model, which should show the unbalanced relationship and causes among the subsystems of the management organization, and reveal the signs of adverse fluctuations in the management process, It also indicates the "safety" of various non covered pressure plates in the same management state "Degree;

the third is the enterprise adversity cycle analysis model, which prompts the frequency, intensity, amplitude and degree of action of various adversity appearances, reveals the main symptoms of various crisis states and their grading criteria, and indicates the reliability of various coping strategies and methods;

the fourth is the evaluation model of management early warning activities, which helps managers comprehensively evaluate enterprises by establishing an early warning index system for management fluctuations and management errors Business conditions, prevent the arrival of adversity and maintain the continuation of prosperity

fifth, the information analysis model, which analyzes the reliability of a large number of enterprise information involved in the above four analysis processes, prompts the impact of internal disorder, disorder and conflict on information collection, processing and use, and evaluates the impact of fuzzy information or uncertain information on management activities. Methods the operation system includes setting up an index system to identify and evaluate adversity, fluctuation and error; Set up full-time early warning institutions and their working procedures, and implement full-time early warning means, analyze and simulate adversity situations and their countermeasures; Establish an early warning management countermeasure library to provide countermeasure reserves for enterprises to avoid and get rid of adversity

The enterprise early warning management theory provides a new choice mode for Chinese enterprises to accelerate the "system reconstruction" to adapt to the market economic system. As far as enterprise application is concerned, the key is how to establish enterprise early warning indicators, that is, what methods are used to monitor the operation and management links that may fail, what kind of warning methods are used to warn the possible mistakes, what kind of blow will be caused, and what pre control methods are used to stop, reduce and transfer the risk of failure. Enterprise early warning management theory has a systematic explanation for this. The basic method of establishing early warning indicators in this theory is to monitor and pre control the error causing environment of various business risks and management errors, effectively evaluate the main internal and external error causing factors (behaviors) in the error causing environment, and then control the occurrence or development of errors, control failures and errors in the early stage, and minimize the degree of various business risks. Therefore, the enterprise early warning management theory has established an early warning index system on enterprise finance, marketing, production, organization management, legal affairs management and project management, which are operable and effective

Early warning management theory is an important theory in modern management, which has important guiding significance for the study of enterprise risk management and crisis management. In the current fierce market competition, early warning theory helps enterprises find mistakes in management activities and reveal bad signs in daily business activities, so as to help managers make a comprehensive evaluation of the operation of enterprises. With the development of enterprises, procurement management will face more and more risks. How to minimize these risks requires the help of early warning theory to help enterprises survive in adversity. In addition, the early warning theory also makes clear the establishment of early warning indicators, monitoring of business activities, alarm methods and warning signs, which has certain guiding significance for the construction of procurement management risk early warning indicator system and the comprehensive risk evaluation of procurement management

comprehensive risk management theory

enterprise wide risk management (EWRM, or enterpriseRisk management, ERM) is the latest development of modern risk management, which mainly began in the middle and late 1990s. Its main reasons are the diversification of risk factors faced by financial institutions and people's more comprehensive understanding of risk factors. In 1992, COSO proposed "internal control - integrated framework", which has become a widely recognized standard in the industry after more than ten years of application. September, 2004

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